Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany. (). (abridged) by Galileo Galilei. To the Most Serene Grand Duchess Mother: Some years ago, as Your. In , Galileo wrote a letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany in order to show how one could argue for the heliocentric system. “Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of.
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Click here to sign up. I shall say further that not only respect for the incapacity of the vulgar, but also current opinion in those times, made the sacred authors accommodate themselves in matters unnecessary to salvation more to accepted usage than to the true essence of things.
Neither would anyone pervert passages of Scripture in opposition to the holy Church or to the Fathers, for those who have written on this matter have never employed scriptural passages.
Kshitijaa marked it as to-read Jul 27, Inat the age of 17, he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, as his father wished. And since he had assumed his laborious enterprise by order of the Supreme Pontiff, he dedicated this book On the celestial revolutions to Pope Paul III. Thomas Brueckner marked it as to-read Dec 28, These propositions uttered by the Holy Ghost were set down in that manner by the sacred scribes dhristina order to accommodate them to the capacities of the common people, who are rude and unlearned.
Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina
If the Bible, accommodating itself to the capacity of the common people, has on one occasion expressed a proposition in words of different sense from the essence of that proposition, then why might it not have done the same, and for the same reason, whenever the same thing happened to be spoken of? I take this to be an orthodox and indisputable doctrine, and I find it specifically in St.
Far from pretending to teach us the constitution and motions of the heavens and the stars, with their shapes, magnitudes, and distances, the authors of the Bible duchrss forbore to speak of these things, though all were quite well known to them. The most holy Fathers did galilro share their views.
This approach caused some, including Dominican friar Niccolo Lorini, to complain to the Inquisitionwhich tried and eventually condemned Galileo of suspicion of heresy. Galileo adopts an Augustinian perspective, while also marginalizing it later.
Again, with the earth turning, they might think of its poles when they read He had not yet made the earth, the rivers, and the hinges of the tk orb45 for hinges would seem to be ascribed in vain to the earth unless it needed them to turn upon.
He tries to build her up as an authority figure and then presents his own credentials to show that he has similar authority. I am referring at all times to merely physical propositions, and not lo supernatural things which are matters of faith.
Akiva Rube rated it really liked it Apr 11, He did not ignore the Bible, but he knew very well that if his doctrine were proved, then it could not contradict the Scriptures when they were rightly understood.
All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Carrie added it Mar 01, Eishersaroya added it Jan 22, Augustine himself, and confirmed in detail by the Bishop of Avila.
Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
With regard to this argument, I think in the first place that it is very pious to say and prudent to affirm that the holy Bible can never speak untruth—whenever its true meaning is understood. Now the Bible, as has been remarked, admits in many places expositions that are remote from the signification of the words for reasons we have already given.
This may be found expressly in some of them; in particular, we find the following words of St. Among a thousand ordinary men who might be questioned concerning these things, probably not a single one will chrostina found to answer anything except that it looks to him as if the sun moves and the earth stands still, and therefore he believes this to be certain. Stephen Cranney rated it really liked it Jun 06, This being granted, I think that in discussions of physical problems we ought to begin not from the authority of scriptural passages, but from sense-experiences and necessary demonstrations; for chistina holy Bible and the phenomena of nature proceed alike from the divine Word, the former as the dictate of the Holy Ghost and the latter as the observant executrix of God’s commands.
Now the Bible, merely to condescend to popular capacity, has not hesitated to obscure some very important pronouncements, attributing to God himself some qualities extremely remote from and even contrary to His essence.
Sizzi was broken on the wheel in for writing a pamphlet against the king of France. There is a great difference between commanding a mathematician or a philosopher and influencing a lawyer or a merchant, for demonstrated conclusions about things in nature or in the heavens cannot be changed with the same facility as opinions about what is or is not lawful in a contract, bargain, or bill of exchange.
I shall therefore discourse of the particulars which these men produce to make this opinion detested and to have it condemned not merely as false but as heretical. Galileo starts the letter with a little flattery of the Grand Duchess. Nathan Chan rated it really liked it May 09, Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots.
I entreat those wise and prudent Fathers to consider with great care the difference that exists between doctrines subject to proof and those subject to opinion.
Catarina rated it liked gailleo Jan 04, Of course, Galileo is willing to admit that the Holy Fathers may make pronouncements on matters of nature whensoever they please. This difference was well understood by the learned and holy Fathers, as proven by their having taken great pains in refuting philosophical fallacies.
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Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina by Galileo Galilei
And why should the Bible be believed concerning the resurrection of the dead, the hope of eternal life, and the Kingdom of Heavenwhen it is considered to be erroneously written as to points which admit of direct demonstration or unquestionable reasoning? Galileo replied with a long letter giving his position on the relation between science and Scripture.
The former, glancing superficially through the Bible, would arrogate to themselves the authority to decree upon every question of physics on the strength of some word which they have misunderstood, and which was employed by the sacred authors for some different purpose. For when infidels refute any Christian on a matter which they themselves thoroughly understand, they thereby evince their slight esteem for our Bible.
One should not wonder that everyone conspires to damn him.