HISTORY OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN AYUBI IN URDU PDF

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His forces in Hama won a victory over their enemy and brought the spoils, together with many prisoners of warto Saladin who ordered the captives to be beheaded for “plundering and laying waste the lands of the Faithful”. Despite early success, they pursued the Muslims ayui enough to become scattered, and Saladin took advantage by rallying his troops and charged at the Crusaders.

Guy then set about besieging Acre.

Sunni Islam Shafi’i [1] [2] [3]. Saladin was unnerved at the attempt on his life, o he accused Gumushtugin and the Assassins of plotting, and so increased his efforts in the siege. Saladin played a major role, commanding the right wing of the Zengid army, while a force of Kurds commanded the left, and Shirkuh was stationed in the center. Saladin, at age 26, went along with them.

BySaladin had completed the conquest of Muslim Syria after capturing Aleppobut ultimately failed to take over the Zengid stronghold of Mosul.

Each force returned to their cities and al-Fadil wrote: During this period, Richard salahjddin Saladin passed envoys back and forth, negotiating the possibility of a truce. The people were watching her and weeping and I Ibn Shaddad was standing amongst them.

Books & Novel on Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi

He spent the rest of the year in Syria without a confrontation with his enemies. Saladin’s intimates accused Majd al-Din of misappropriating the revenues of Zabid, but Saladin himself believed there was no evidence to back the allegations. One of his wives, Shamsah, is buried with her son al-Aziz in the tomb of al-Shafi’i. While ill, he asked Saladin to pay him a visit to request that he take care of his young children, but Saladin refused, fearing treachery against the Abbasids, and is said to have regretted his action after realizing what al-Adid had wanted.

Saladin had gathered massive reinforcements from Egypt while Saif al-Din was levying troops among the minor states of Diyarbakir and al-Jazira. Presently, Saladin awoke to find a figure leaving the tent. By 23 August, Saladin had decisively quelled the uprising, and never again had to face a military challenge from Cairo. With this victory, Saladin decided to call in more troops from Egypt; he requested al-Adil to dispatch 1, horsemen.

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He retreated the same month, after laying waste to the countryside, but failing to conquer any of the forts. After his victory against the Zengids, Saladin proclaimed himself king and suppressed the name of as-Salih in Friday prayers and Islamic coinage. He continued towards Aleppo, which still closed its gates to him, halting before the city.

Initially, Saladin attempted to organize his men into battle order, but as his bodyguards were being killed, he saw that defeat was inevitable and so with a small remnant of his troops mounted a swift camelriding all the way to the territories of Egypt.

Jerusalem capitulated to his forces on Salauuddin, 2 Octoberafter a siege. In the wake of Nur ad-Din’s death, Saladin faced a difficult decision; he could move his swlahuddin against the Crusaders from Egypt or wait until invited by as-Salih in Syria to come to his aid and launch a war from there.

In spite of his earlier hesitation to go through with the exchange, he had no doubts about his success, stating that Aleppo was “the key to the lands” and “this city is the eye of Syria and the citadel is its pupil.

Strategically, it would have made more sense for Saladin to capture Tyre before Jerusalem; Saladin, however, chose to pursue Jerusalem first because of the importance of the city to Islam. The Battle of Jaffa proved to be the last military engagement of the Third Crusade. After a few Ayyubid raids—including attacks on Zir’inForbeletand Mount Tabor —the Crusaders still were not tempted to attack their main forceand Saladin led his men back across the river once provisions and supplies ran low.

Saladin’s military career began under the tutelage of his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuha prominent military commander under Nur ad-Din, the Zengid emir of Damascus and Aleppo and the most influential teacher of Saladin. Heavily outnumbered, Saladin initially attempted to make terms with the Zengids by abandoning all conquests north of the Damascus provincebut they refused, insisting he return to Egypt. The biographer Ibn Khallikan writes, “Historians agree in stating that [Saladin’s] father and family belonged to Duwin [ Dvin ].

Saladin – Wikipedia

Although positions were complicated by rival Muslim leaders, the bulk ayhbi the Syrian commanders supported Saladin because of his role in the Egyptian expedition, in which he gained a record of military qualifications.

After the sacking of Bilbais, the Crusader-Egyptian force and Shirkuh’s army were to engage in a battle on the desert border of the River Nilejust west of Giza. Seven centuries later, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany donated a histry marble sarcophagus to the mausoleum. Based in the an-Nusayriyah Mountainsthey commanded nine fortressesall built on high elevations.

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He began granting his family members high-ranking positions in the region; he ordered the construction of a college skltan the Maliki branch of Sunni Islam in the city, as well as one for the Shafi’i denomination to which he belonged in al-Fustat. In the following years, he led forays against the Crusaders in Palestinecommissioned the successful conquest yrdu Yemenand staved off pro-Fatimid rebellions in Upper Egypt.

In the summer ofKing Baldwin had set up an outpost on the road to Damascus and aimed to fortify a passage over the Jordan Riverknown as Jacob’s Fordthat commanded the approach to the Banias plain the plain was divided by the Muslims and the Christians.

Unsourced material may fo challenged and removed. This was intended to cement an alliance with the Artuqids and to impress other emirs in Mesopotamia and Anatolia. The urduu public work he commissioned outside of Cairo was the large bridge at Gizawhich was intended to form an outwork of defense against a potential Moorish invasion. Saladin had his guards supplied with link lights and had chalk and cinders strewed around his tent outside Masyaf —which he was besieging—to detect any footsteps by the Assassins.

Ibn al-Athir claims that the caliph chose him after being told by his advisers that “there is no one weaker or younger” than Saladin, and “not one of the emirs [commanders] obeyed him or served him”. An-Nasir sent Badr al-Badr a high-ranking religious figure to mediate between the two sides.

The Franks urged her to approach Saladin herself with her grievance.

Saladin preferred to take Jerusalem without bloodshed and offered generous terms, but those inside refused to leave their holy city, vowing to destroy it in a fight to the death rather than see it handed over peacefully.