Nama/NIM: Muhamad Syaiful Ampri/Kelompok: Kimia () Judul: “ HUKUM RAOULT” ALAT dan BAHAN. Contoh campuran ideal. Campuran ideal dan perubahan entalpi pada proses pencampuran. Hukum Raoult Tekanan uap / diagram komposisi. Raoult’s law (Q) François-Marie Raoult hywiki Ռաուլի օրենքներ; idwiki Hukum Raoult; itwiki Legge di Raoult; jawiki ラウールの法則; jvwiki Hukum .

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Commonly quoted examples include:. For example, if the two components differ only in isotopic content, then Raoult’s law is essentially exact. This image may not be in the public domain in these countries, hukkm moreover do not implement the rule of the shorter term.

The page explains what is meant by an ideal mixture and looks at how the phase diagram for such a mixture is built up and used.

Raoult’s Law and Ideal Mixtures of Liquids

The decrease in vapor pressure is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solute in an ideal solution. Suppose you had a mixture of 2 moles of methanol and 1 mole of ethanol at a particular temperature. This page was last edited on 11 Decemberat That would boil at a new temperature T 2and the vapor over the top of it would have a composition C 3. That means that in the case we’ve been talking about, you would expect to find a higher proportion of B the more volatile component in the vapor than in the liquid.

The solute also shows a linear limiting law, but with a different coefficient. What is total vapor pressure of this solution?

Raoult’s law – Wikipedia

That means that there are only half as many of each sort of molecule on the surface as in the pure liquids. Articles related to solutions. For the purposes of this topic, getting close to ideal is good enough!


This is analogous to the ideal gas lawwhich is a limiting law raojlt when the interactive forces between molecules approach zero, for example as the concentration approaches zero.

If you repeat this exercise with liquid mixtures of lots of different compositions, you can plot a second curve – a vapor composition line.

Hukum Raoult – Wikipedia

Faoult if you took all the other gases away, the remaining gas would still be exerting its own gaoult pressure. Solubility equilibrium Total dissolved solids Solvation Solvation shell Enthalpy of solution Lattice energy Raoult’s law Henry’s law Solubility table data Solubility chart. There are two ways of looking at the above question: That is exactly what it says it is – the fraction of the total number of moles present which is A or B.

In other words, the hukuj vapor pressure of A at a particular temperature is proportional to its mole fraction. If that is not obvious to you, go back and read the last section again! The first factor is a correction for gas non-ideality, or deviations from the ideal-gas law. This second line will show the composition of the vapor over the top of any particular boiling liquid. The system hydrochloric acid – water has a large enough negative deviation to form a minimum in the vapor pressure curve known as a negative azeotropecorresponding to a mixture that evaporates without change of composition.

The following other wikis use this file: At any particular temperature a certain proportion of the molecules will have enough energy to rsoult the surface. If the vapor pressure is less than predicted a negative deviationfewer molecules of each component than expected have left the solution in the hhukum of the other component, indicating that the forces between unlike molecules are stronger.


Since B has the higher vapor pressure, it will have the lower boiling point. If the system is at equilibriumthen the chemical potential of the component i must be the same in the liquid solution and in the vapor above it. Ideal Mixtures and the Enthalpy of Mixing When you make any mixture of liquids, you have to break the existing intermolecular attractions which needs energyand then remake new ones which releases energy.

Notice that the vapor over the top of the boiling liquid has a composition which is much richer in B – the more volatile component. We’ll start with the boiling points of pure A and B. If the vapor pressure of a mixture is lower than expected from Raoult’s law, there is said to be a negative deviation.

If you plot a graph of the partial vapor pressure of A against its mole fraction, you will get a straight line. This is obvious the basis for fractional distillation.

Raoult’s law

You must also include a United States public domain tag to indicate why this work is in the public domain in the United States. Let’s focus on one of these liquids – A, for example. This is called its partial pressure and is independent of the other gases present. If rapult temperature rises or falls when you mix the two liquids, then the mixture is not ideal.

What do these two aspects imply about the boiling points of the two liquids? Some mixtures in which this happens are 1 benzene and methanol2 carbon disulfide and acetoneand 3 chloroform and ethanol.